Pituitary adenoma emerging from sella caused compression of medial aspects (carrying nasal half of retinal fibers) of optic nerves. While alive, patient had bitemporal hemianopsia.
Bacterial shapes and specialized structures
Honeycomb fibrosis is present in both lungs, predominantly in the lower lobes. Emphysema is present in the left upper lobe.
Cerebral infarct. This section of brain shows hemorrhage in the white matter.
Massive subdural haematom over the surface of the brain and the middle cranial fossae. Injury received when a man, who was being chased by an enemy, stumbled and fell.
Accessory iris membrane is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from hyperplasia of the superficial layer of the iris. It presents as an additional layer of iris tissue giving the impression that the iris is duplicated.
Opened left ventricle of heart shows a thickened, dilated left ventricle with subendocardial fibrosis manifested as increased whiteness of endocardium.
Pancreatic cancer is a frequently occult malignancy, with half of patients having significant disease upon initial detection. Chronic inflammation is a major predisposing factor, and patients with chronic pancreatitis from alcohol abuse have a higher incidence and earlier age of onset of pancreatic cancer. The 1-year survival rate is 24% and the 5-year survival rate is only 5%.
“Alcohol induces a number of pathologic changes to the heart. The classic manifestation is heart failure from dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is an irreversible process in which the ventricular wall thickness is normal but the ventricular chambers are enlarged, giving the appearance of thinned walls (shown). Patients have subsequent systolic dysfunction and are at risk for arrhythmias, thromboembolism, and sudden death. Holiday heart syndrome refers to the development of rhythm disturbances after alcohol use in patients without structural heart disease. Atrial fibrillation is the most common disturbance, and most cases are self-limiting.”
Honeycomb Lung - autopsy lung with end-stage pulmonary fibrosis.
Extradural haemorrhages are most frequently associated with fructure of temporal or occipital bone when a branch of the middle meningeal or the posterior meningeal artery is involved by the fructure line. This particular victim was thrown out of a moving car.
Multiple sclerosis - macroscopical PM specimens
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other effectively. Nerve cells communicate by sending electrical signals called action potentials down long fibers called axons, which are contained within an insulating substance called myelin. In MS, the body’s own immune system attacks and damages the myelin. When myelin is lost, the axons can no longer effectively conduct signals.The name multiple sclerosis refers to scars (scleroses—better known as plaques or lesions) particularly in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord, which is mainly composed of myelin. Although much is known about the mechanisms involved in the disease process, the cause remains unknown. Theories include genetics or infections. Different environmental risk factors have also been found.